(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN ELEMENTS ON STEEL.
on shock-resisting power, though probably more constant than its .effects on static ductility, are still decidedly capricious.
The difficulty of detecting a high content of phosphorus by the ordinary system of plrysical tests will be shown by Table ..XVII-H, which is constructed by comparing the acid open-hearth angles in Table XIV-H, which are of the same ultimate strength and of the same thickness, but which contain different percentages of phosphorus. . The higher phosphorus gives a higher elastic ratio
TABLE XVII-H. .   Properties of Low-Phosphorus and High-Phosphorus. Steels.
Limits of ultimate strength; Ibs per square inch.	No. of group.	VH Sg to"* <D .-to fl 0 0> ~m flca-S E-<	Phosphorus; x>er cent.	1 Number of heats.	Average ultimate strength; Ibs. per sq. iii.	ll M . c3 m a# 9.~0 to*? 5 &**-> 1* fl . P.2 a1 ^"	Average elastic ratio; percent.	Average elongation in 8 in.; per cent.	Average reduction of area; ? per cent.
66000 to 04000	I	&tof	.05 to .07 .07 to .10	212 50	60845 60064	40891 41143	67.21 68.50	29.85 28.82	57.4 58.4
	II	&toi	.05 to :07 .07 to .10	126 , 50	60695 60583	89-115 40170	64.94 66.80	29.23 29.05	55.6 56.3
	III	A to I	.05 to .07 .07 to .10	81 50	60558 61049	38645 39656	63.81 64.96	28.95 28.98	63.8 54.8
	IV	14 to *	,05 to .07 .07 to .10	121 50	59906 59763	37478 38338	62.56 64.15	29.82 29.60	51.3 55.3
C4000 to 72000	V	&to|	.05 to .07 .07 to .10	40 25	65656 66365	43713 44486	66.58 67.03	27.90 27.19	55.0 55.4
	"VI	A to J	.05 to .07 .07 to .10	29 39	65631 65777	42191 42817	64.28 65.09	27.83 27.49	53.7 63.2
in all six groups, the difference ranging from 0.45 per cent, to 1.59 per cent., but the elongation and the reduction of area are the same in the two kinds of steel. It is the difference between static and shock ductility that makes phosphoric steel so dangerous. In the ordinary testing machine there is no important difference .between a pure steel containing less than .04 per cent, of phosphorus, and a common steel with .08 per cent., or a bad steel with .10 per cent.
Constructive engineers and metallurgists have staked and lost their reputations in .promoting processes designed to make good material out of steel containing high phosphorus. Many a time such metal has shown high ductility in the testing machine, but each time the high-phosphorus B>2tal has given lamentable failures